The law of specific nerve energies states that ____. a. perception of a repeated stimulus fades b. every stimulation of the optic nerve is perceived as light c. the speed of action potentials varies depending on the strength of the stimulus d. any stimulation above the threshold produces an action potential

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According to the law of specific nerve energies, the brain tells the difference between one sensory modality and another by ____. a. which neurotransmitter is released b. which neurons are active c. the velocity of the action potentials d. the amplitude of the action potentials
In the human retina, messages go from receptors at the back of the eye to ____. a. retina cells b. bipolar cells c. ganglion cells d. spiny cells
Light enters the eye through an opening in the center of the iris called the ____. a. retina b. cornea c. pupil d. macula
Bipolar cells send their messages to ____, which are located close to the center of the eye. a. spiny cells b. cornea cells c. bipolar cells d. ganglion cells
Light from the right half of the world strikes which part of the retina? a. the left half b. the right half c. the whole retina equally d. It depends of the wavelength.
In what order does visual information pass through the retina? a. receptor cells, ganglion cells, bipolar cells b. ganglion cells, bipolar cells, receptor cells c. receptor cells, bipolar cells, ganglion cells d. bipolar cells, receptor cells, ganglion cells
Various types of ____ cells refine the input to ganglion cells, enabling them to respond specifically to shapes, movement, or other visual features. a. receptors b. geniculate cells c. amacrine cells d. optic nerves
The optic nerve is composed of axons from which kind of cell? a. rods and cones b. bipolar cells c. horizontal cells d. ganglion cells
The name of the point at which the optic nerve leaves the retina is called the ____. a. blind spot b. fovea c. optic chiasm d. ganglion
Which statement characterizes the fovea? a. It has the greatest perception of detail. b. It surrounds the point of exit of the optic nerve. c. It falls in the shadow cast by the pupil. d. It has more rods than cones.
If you want to see something in fine detail, you should focus the light on which part of your retina? a. the optic nerve b. the fovea c. an area containing mostly rods d. the cornea
The retinas of predatory birds such as hawks ____. a. have no discernible fovea b. have a greater density of receptors than do humans on the top half of the retina c. have a greater density of receptors than do humans on the bottom half of the retina d. are virtually indistinguishable from the retinas of humans
In vertebrate retinas, receptors send their messages ____. a. straight to the brain b. immediately to ganglion cells within the retina c. to bipolar cells within the retina d. to the periphery of the retina first, ganglion cells next, and bipolar cells last
Why does the fovea provide the clearest, most detailed visual information? a. It is closest to the pupil. b. It surrounds the optic nerve. c. It has tightly packed receptors. d. It contains many blood vessels for supplying energy.




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