Just a quick question on clarification because from what I've understood and how we've played there have been some differences. If I understand correctly, casting a spell directly next to an enemy doesn't cause an attack if opportunity (as well as shooting a bow I guess). I'm asking about this because that's what i thought, but my dm (who is fairly new) had an attack of opportunity from an orc when my wizard cast a spell next to an enemy. I have no issue against this but I want to know more for my own campaign than anything else. Thank you! You guys are awesome
Edit: sorry forgot to mention, 5th edition!
In 5e there is never an opportunity attack for casting a spell.
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However, the feat mage slayer allows you to use your reaction to make a melee attack if an enemy within 5 feet of you begins casting.
Similarly, anyone can use the ready action and specify "target begins to cast a spell" and "I use my action to attack them" in order to hit someone when they start casting.
Note that the latter two uses are not opportunity attacks, however. They are simply using your reaction to make a melee attack.
It depends on what edition you are playing I dm 3.5 and it's been some time but I don't recall a rule about mobs getting an opportunity you just may need to pass constant check
The only issue with standing next to an enemy is ranged attacks are at disadvantage this is with weapons or spells, also understand spells with save DC's are not affected because those are not attack rolls you make.
The only thing that provokes an opportunity attack in 5e besides a couple exceptions for some feats is leaving the opponents reach. Now one of those feats is Mage Slayer which essentially does give an opportunity attack for casting adjacent to them.
With the edit...
In 5th Edition, you do not provoke an opportunity attack when casting in melee. However ranged spell attacks (even if the target isn't in melee with you) do have disadvantage because you are performing a ranged attack in melee.
The logic is that the guy may not actively be hitting you, but they can be in the way or trying to smack your arms or whatever.
In 5th edition, the rules for what causes an Opportunity Attack are on p195 of the Player's Handbook. Simply, it happens when you move out of an enemy's reach. Nothing to do with spellcasting or ranged attacks.
Also on p195 is "Ranged Attacks in Close Combat", which describes how you have disadvantage on making a ranged attack (spell or otherwise) when you're within 5 feet of an enemy.
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