Which of the following is NOT one of the leadership theory categorization factors?

a.

You are watching: According to john kotter, leadership, in contrast to management, entails:

traits

b.

attitudes

c.

behavior

d.

contingency


Kotter suggests that leadership and management:

a.

consist of very similar activities

b.

involve the alignment of people to the overall direction of the organization through communication

c.

involve the management of major change efforts within the organization

d.

are two distinct, yet complementary systems of action in organizations


According to Zaleznik"s thinking on leaders as distinct personalities, leaders and managers differ along four different dimensions of personality. Which of the following is NOT one of those dimensions?

a.

attitudes toward goals

b.

relationships with others

c.

sense of self

d.

internal versus external orientation


Trait leader theories focus on all the following except:

a.

intelligence

b.

personality characteristics

c.

physical attributes

d.

situational characteristics


Which of the following statements best reflects the support for trait theories to identify universal distinguishing attributes of leaders?

a.

Trait studies have identified physical attributes as being more important to leadership than personality or leader abilities such as intelligence.

b.

When looking at physical attributes, height has been the indicator a leader attribute with universal generalizability.

c.

Findings on traits as a basis for explaining leader effectiveness are neither strong nor uniform.

d.

Trait theory studies have tended to conclude that there are strong implications for training and development rather then selection.


c

Trait theories of leadership attempt to:

a.

fit traits to various situations

b.

emphasize the situation in classifying approaches to leadership

c.

suggest leaders are born and not made

d.

focus on leaders physical attributes, personality, and abilit


d

A major difference between trait and behavioral theories of leadership is:

a.

trait theories, unlike behavioral theories emphasize the leader as opposed to the situation

b.

trait theories help organizations train and develop leaders rather than select them

c.

trait theories emphasize personality & ability attributes versus actions and abilities

d.

trait theories emphasize personality & ability attributes versus the characteristics of the followers themselves


c

When considering the type of leadership style exhibited according to the behavioral theories, which of the following is most accurate?

a.

The specific situation is important because the leader"s style varies with each situation.

b.

The emotional atmosphere of the work environment has not been associated with a particular leadership style.

c.

Situational characteristics are not important because the leader"s style does not vary over different situations.

d.

Laissez-faire leadership is similar to the employee-centered or subordinate-centered approach to leadership.


c

When comparing autocratic leadership style to democratic leadership style, democratic leaders:

a.

are more directive and less likely to allow follower initiative

b.

force compliance to rules and procedures

c.

do not closely supervise and allow employee initiative and decision making

d.

require more structure in the work environment


c

All of the following are autocratic leader characteristics except:

a.

strongly controlling work relationships

b.

explicit work orders and minimal follower flexibility in application of work rules

c.

highly structured work situation and close supervision

d.

employee-centered


d

The most pronounced consequence of laissez-faire leadership tends to be:

a.

high job satisfaction

b.

the development of leadership at lower levels of the organization

c.

an organization that is very flexible and responsive to external changes in the market

d.

chaos in the work environment


d

Which of the following is NOT a behavior of initiating structure?

a.

organizing the work environment

b.

establishing lines of communication and authority

c.

assigning employees to tasks

d.

encouraging mutual respect and interpersonal trust


d

Blake and Mouton"s Leadership Grid identifies the country club manager as someone who:

a.

exerts minimal effort to get the work done

b.

builds a highly productive work team

c.

conforms to requirements and applies considerable pressure on employees to perform

d.

creates a pleasing, happy work environment and applies minimal supervision


d

The impoverished manager is one who:

a.

exerts just enough effort to avoid being fired.

b.

creates a happy, comfortable work environment.

c.

emphasizes efficient production.

d.

maintains the status quo.


a

Contingency theories of leadership, in determining appropriate leader behavior and style, focus strongly on:

a.

follower characteristics

b.

the importance and characteristics of the situation as well as particular traits

c.

traits of the leader

d.

task characteristics and work schedules


b

The theories of leadership concerned with identifying the specific leader behaviors that are most effective in specific leadership situations would be:

a.

trait theories

b.

behavioral theories

c.

contingency theories

d.

transformational theories


c

As a supervisor, you find yourself in a situation where you have good relationships with employees, the task is structured, and you have and can exercise strong position power. Your leadership behavior and style should be:

a.

employee-centered

b.

very controlling with extremely close supervision

c.

task-oriented

d.

autocratic


c

Fiedler would advocate which of the following in effecting a match of the leader to a favorable leadership situation?

a.

leader behavior training

b.

follower skill training

c.

better selection and assignment of leaders

d.

reengineer the situation


d

The LPC scale is:

a.

an attitudinal scale that measures leadership style

b.

a projective technique that evaluates the person a leader has least preferred to work with

c.

highly reliable

d.

an instrument that evaluates the type of person a leader likes least


b

Situational favorableness using Fiedler"s model consists of which three dimensions?

a.

initiating structure, position power, and leader-member relations

b.

initiating structure, task structure, and position power

c.

task structure, leader-member relations, and production orientation

d.

position power, leader-member relations, and task structure


d

According to Fiedler, the effectiveness of leaders is dependent on:

a.

the favorableness of their situation

b.

the least preferred coworker

c.

task structure

d.

position power


a

According to Fiedler"s leadership research, high LPC (relationship-oriented) leaders are most successful in situations where:

a.

leader-member relations are poor, the task is unstructured, and position power is weak

b.

leader-member relations are poor, the task is structured, and position power is strong

c.

leader-member relations are good, the task is unstructured, and position power is weak

d.

leader-member relations are good, the task is structured, and position power is weak


c

Fiedler recommends that managers, in order to be effective, should:

a.

change their leadership style to fit the situation

b.

carefully assess and diagnose the situation

c.

adjust their position power

d.

treat employees differently depending upon the task


b

As a manager using Fiedler"s approach to leadership, which of the following interventions would be most effective?

a.

Insure that you recruit leaders with flexible leadership approaches.

b.

When you find a misfit between the leader and the situation, provide the necessary training to remedy the lack of fit.

c.

Constantly monitor leadership orientation through the LPC to detect any change in orientation.

d.

Reengineer the situation to fit the leader"s predisposition.


d

According to the contingency theory developed by Fiedler, what is the most appropriate action where it is found there is a misfit between the leader and the situation?

a.

Attempt to change the leaders behavior through training.

b.

Remove the leader and replace him/her with someone that will result in a fit.

c.

Reengineer the leader"s situation to fit the leader"s basic predisposition.

d.

Develop better assessment techniques for leaders as well as group members.


c

The variables used to determine the most appropriate leader behavior in House"s path-goal theory are:

a.

position power and leader-member relations

b.

leader behavior style and follower style

c.

authority and task characteristics

d.

follower characteristics and task characteristics


d

Which of the following is NOT one of the leader behavior styles one can choose from when using the path- goal theory of leader effectiveness?

a.

directive

b.

participative

c.

relationship-oriented

d.

achievement-oriented


c

The path-goal theory of leader effectiveness by Robert House is based on:

a.

the equity theory of motivation

b.

the goal setting theory of motivation

c.

the expectancy theory of motivation

d.

McGregor"s Theory Y approach to motivation


c

The path-goal theory assumes that leaders:

a.

adapt their behavior and style to fit the characteristics of the followers

b.

adapt their behavior and style to fit the characteristics of the environment in which they work

c.

structure the situation so as to best fit their leader style

d.

adapt their behavior and style to fit the characteristics of the work environment and followers


d

According to the Vroom-Yetton-Jago normative decision model, all of the following are possible appropriate decision-making strategies except:

a.

authoritative

b.

democratic

c.

laissez-faire

d.

consultative


c

The Vroom-Yetton-Jago normative decision model helps leaders and managers know:

a.

when to change the decision situation or style of the leader

b.

how to identify what leadership style is most appropriate through the administration of the LBDQ

c.

when to have employees participate in the decision-making process

d.

how to focus on task characteristics, leader-member relations, or the position power of the leader


c

The key situational variable of the Hersey-Blanchard leadership model is:

a.

task structure

b.

type of power

c.

maturity level of employees

d.

leader-follower relationships


c

In the Hersey-Blanchard leadership model, the leadership style most appropriate with very mature followers is:

a.

autocratic

b.

delegating

c.

democratic

d.

employee-centered


b

The telling style of leadership in the Hersey-Blanchard leadership model entails:

a.

consideration and low concern for the task

b.

low concern of relationships and strong initiating structure

c.

low relationship concern for task and employees

d.

high consideration and task orientation


b

In the Hershey-Blanchard situational leadership model, maturity is determined by:

a.

a follower"s level of moral development

b.

a follower"s age and years of experience

c.

a follower"s emotional quotient or IQ

d.

a follower"s ability and willingness to accept responsibility for completing work


d

The leadership approach which recognizes that leaders may form different relationships with followers is:

a.

the substitute for leadership approach

b.

followership theory

c.

LMX theory

d.

transactional theory


c

The basic idea behind leader-member exchange theory is:

a.

followership is based on member perceptions of equity

b.

leaders form two groups of followers (in-groups and out-groups)

c.

leaders develop relationships with followers based on the principle of who does what and how much for whom

d.

that followership depends on the degree that a task is satisfying


b

Recent research on LMX theory has revealed the surprising result that:

a.

increased communication between the supervisor and in-group members tends to lead to lower performance ratings

b.

decreased communication between the supervisor and out-group members tends to lead to higher performance ratings

c.

there was not any difference between in-group or out-group members on performance ratings when the communication between the supervisor and in/out-group members increased

d.

increased communication between the supervisor and out-group members may to lower performance ratings


d

Transformational leaders:

a.

inspire and stimulate followers to high performance levels

b.

use reward and punishment to shape employee behavior

c.

rely on contractual arrangements to manage employees

d.

use legitimate and reward power


a

Transformational leaders have been found to:

a.

inspire followers to perform beyond expectations

b.

be someone who possesses superhuman, or even mystical qualities

c.

think the same as transactional leaders

d.

be more or less successful depending on the situation


a

Howard Schultz, CEO of Starbuck’s, is attempting to re-ignite Starbuck’s emotional attachment with the Starbuck’s brand and streamline the company’s international expansion. Schultz is using his charisma along with inspirational motivation and intellectual stimulation to change Starbuck’s. This reflects what type of leadership?

a.

Transactional

b.

Leader-member Exchange

c.

Path-Goal Leadership

d.

Transformationa


d

Charismatic leadership rests greatly with _____ power.

a.

legitimate

b.

reward

c.

referent

d.

expert


c

Charismatic leadership:

a.

is very different than transformational leadership

b.

is based on actions and behaviors

c.

becomes a very effective leadership approach when combined with personalized power motivation

d.

has great potential for high levels of achievement but also risks of destructive courses of action


d

The positive face of charismatic leadership is most strongly associated with:

a.

personalized power motivation

b.

socialized power motivation

c.

situational contingencies

d.

actions and behaviors


a

The ability of a leader to create a vision and convince others to become a part of it, even skeptics, is known as:

a.

transactional leadership

b.

reality-distortion field

c.

out-group leadership persuasion

d.

the positive use of selling as reflected in the Situational Leadership Model


b

A multidimensional construct that includes transformational, charismatic, or transactional leadership as the situation might demand is known as:

a.

Contingency Leadership

b.

Authentic Leadership

c.

Inspirational Leadership

d.

Leadership Grid Approac


b

Authentic leaders are characterized by all of the following EXCEPT:

a.

high levels of hope

b.

optimism

c.

resilience

d.

benevolence


d

Emotional intelligence is made up of all of the following competencies except:

a.

higher cognitive functioning

b.

self-awareness

c.

adaptability

d.

empathy


a

Which of the following statements best characterizes emotional intelligence and leadership?

a.

While most people gain emotional intelligence as they age, everyone starts with the same amount.

b.

Leadership can be learned; unfortunately, emotional intelligence is given.

c.

Emotional intelligence can be learned through honest feedback.

d.

Leaders with low emotional intelligence don’t necessarily make poor decisions or lose their effectiveness.


c

The glass cliff refers to:

a.

preventing women from taking on difficult leadership situations

b.

men perceiving women as less suited to difficult leadership positions due to their lack of decision making experience

c.

a trend in organizations to place more women in difficult leadership situations

d.

women perceiving difficult leadership situations as situations to avoid due to inherent risk of failure


c

In contrast to leadership, the topic of followership has:

a.

been viewed as not highly differentiated versus leadership

b.

been viewed from a traditional perspective as passive

c.

not been extensively researched

d.

not endorsed the view that the follower role is an active one with potential for leadership.


c

Follower motivational training would be LEAST successful with:

a.

survivors

b.

sheep

c.

yes people

d.

alienated followers


d

Followers who tend to be passive but capable of independent and critical thinking are:

a.

alienated

b.

effective

c.

sheep

d.

survivors


a

Dimensions used to classify followers include:

a.

active/passive, critical/uncritical thinking, and independent/dependent

b.

active/passive, dialectic/socratic thinking, and independent/interdependent

c.

active/neutral, dialectic/socratic thinking, and independent/interdependent

d.

active/passive, critical/uncritical thinking, and independent/interdependent


a

The situational approach to leadership would lead to the conclusion that a global leader must factor in which of the following organizational attributes?

a.

culture

b.

differences between men and women

c.

strategy

d.

climate


a

Which of the following is NOT a conclusion drawn by the text authors concerning the role and importance of leadership?

a.

Different situations call for different leadership styles and behavior.

b.

No two leaders are the same.

c.

There is no one best leadership style but there are organizational preferences in terms of style.

d.

See more: Fractured Lands: How The Arab World Came Apart Kindle, Fractured Lands By Scott Anderson

Good leaders are not likely to be good followers.


d

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